Originally, the First Amendment applied only to the federal government, and some states continued official state religions after ratification. Grumet (1994), Everson used the metaphor of a wall of separation between church and state, derived from the correspondence of President Thomas Jefferson.Massachusetts, for example, was officially Congregational until the 1830s. It had been long established in the decisions of the Supreme Court, beginning with Reynolds v.The people shall not be restrained from peaceably assembling and consulting for their common good; nor from applying to the Legislature by petitions, or remonstrances, for redress of their grievances.Thomas Jefferson wrote with respect to the First Amendment and its restriction on the legislative branch of the federal government in an 1802 letter to the Danbury Baptists (a religious minority concerned about the dominant position of the Congregational church in Connecticut): Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between Man & his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legitimate powers of government reach actions only, & not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should "make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof", thus building a wall of separation between Church & State.In addition to the right of assembly guaranteed by this clause, the Court has also ruled that the amendment implicitly protects freedom of association.Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.Speech rights were expanded significantly in a series of 20th and 21st-century court decisions which protected various forms of political speech, anonymous speech, campaign financing, pornography, and school speech; these rulings also defined a series of exceptions to First Amendment protections. Commercial speech, however, is less protected by the First Amendment than political speech, and is therefore subject to greater regulation. United States (1971), the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protected against prior restraint—pre-publication censorship—in almost all cases.The Supreme Court overturned English common law precedent to increase the burden of proof for defamation and libel suits, most notably in New York Times Co. The Free Press Clause protects publication of information and opinions, and applies to a wide variety of media. The Petition Clause protects the right to petition all branches and agencies of government for action.
After a brief debate, Mason's proposal was defeated by a unanimous vote of the state delegations.For the constitution to be ratified, however, nine of the thirteen states were required to approve it in state conventions.Opposition to ratification ("Anti-Federalism") was partly based on the Constitution's lack of adequate guarantees for civil liberties. Constitution was eventually ratified by all thirteen states. If you are under the age of 18 years, or under the age of majority in the location from where you are accessing this website you do not have authorization or permission to enter this website or access any of its materials.You also acknowledge and agree that you are not offended by nudity and explicit depictions of sexual activity.